Career Guidance


Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine. In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.

Job Opportunities
• Biotechnology as a subject has grown rapidly. As far as employment is concerned, it has become one of the fast growing sector. Biotechnology has a great scope in future.
• One can be a Research Scientist, Teacher, Marketing manager, Science Writer, Bioinformists, Quality Control Officer or Production in-charge in the Food, Chemical and Pharmaceutical industry. Analyst (Venture-Capitalist) Environmental / Safety Specialist.

Major Areas for Employment:
• R&D laboratories
• Research Organizations
• Pharmaceutical and Chemical Industries
• Schools, colleges, Universities and Research Institutes

Major Organizations employing Biotechnologists: Hindustan Lever Ltd, Thapar Group, Indo-American Hybrid seeds, Bincon India Ltd, Bivcol, IDPL, India Vaccines Corporation, Hindustan Antibiotics, National Botanical Institute, National Chemical Laboratories, Tata Engineering Research Institute etc.


Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms i.e. unicellular, multicellular, or acellular. Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology.
Employers value the scientific, analytical and problem-solving skills developed by microbiology graduates Job Opportunities
• A candidate studying Microbiology may work as Biomedical scientist, Hematologist, Microbiologist, Research scientist (life sciences), Scientific laboratory technician, Technical brewer, Toxicologist, Ecologist, Forensic scientist, Science writer, Water quality scientist, Teaching.

Major Areas for Employment:
• R&D laboratories of government and private hospitals
• Research organizations
• Pharmaceutical and Chemical Industries
• Food and Beverage Industries
• Schools, colleges, Universities and Research Institutes
• Self employment is also a very good option for microbiologists to start their professional career. They can set up microbiological laboratories of their own and can help in diagnosing the disease and researchers to direct their own research.


Chemistry is the science about basic structure of substances, i.e what they are made of, how they interact and what role they play in living things. Chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of substances hazardous to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it bridges other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology with each other.
Studying chemistry allows you to develop subject-specific and transferable skills, which are valued by all employers, meaning your future career doesn't have to be in a lab… Job Opportunities
A candidate studying Chemistry may work as Analytical chemist, Chemical engineer, Clinical biochemist, Forensic scientist, Pharmacologist, Research scientist , Science writer, Toxicologist, Teaching.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Research organizations
• Pharmaceutical Industries
• Food Industries
• Beverage Industries
• Chemical Industries
• Schools, colleges, Universities and Research Institutes


Zoology or animal biology, is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct. In short it is the branch of science where animals, their structures, development and classification are studied.
Although firmly rooted in the animal sciences, a degree in zoology equips you with an array of skills, including lab and field work, which can lead to a wide choice of careers. Job Opportunities
A candidate studying Zoology may work as Ecologist, Environmental consultant, Field trials officer, Marine scientist, Nature conservation officer, Research scientist, Biomedical scientist, Environmental education officer, Environmental manager, Teaching, Toxicologist.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Zoos or Wildlife Parks and Environmental Protection Agencies;
• Government agencies and Research Institutions;
• Medical research establishments and the National Health Service;
• Environmental and animal charities;
• Schools, colleges, Science centres, libraries and museums;
• Universities and Research institutes;
• Environmental consultancies;
• Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Petroleum companies;
• Aquaculture and animal nutrition companies.


Botany, also called plant science(s) or plant biology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure, growth and differentiation, reproduction, biochemistry and primary metabolism, chemical products development, diseases, evolutionary relationships, systematics, and plant taxonomy. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods and textiles, in modern horticulture, agriculture and forestry, plant propagation, breeding and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, and the maintenance of biodiversity.
Career in Botany can be highly rewarding for those who are allured with the aesthetic beauty of nature and flora.
Job Opportunities
Various career fields in botany are that of Plant Taxonomists, Ethnobotanists, Pathologists, Palaeobotanists and Palynologists, Plant cytologists, Plant geneticists, Plant ecologists, Plant Scientists and Weed Scientists, Academic career in institutions as lecturers and professors etc.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Educational institutions, central and state agencies and industries.
• Plant scientists also work in the State Departments, Botanical Survey of India, Environmental Protection Agency etc.
• Drug companies, oil industry, chemical industry, Timber and paper companies, genetic research industry, botanical gardens, nurseries, fruit growers, food companies, archaeological museums, fermentation industries.
• The demand for botanists is increasing in areas such as medical plant research, plant diseases, plant breeding and plant genetics.
• Some botanists work in administration and marketing for biological supply houses, seed companies, biotechnology firms and pharmaceutical manufacturers.


The study of agriculture is termed as agricultural science. It is a multidisciplinary field which consists of a variety of scientific, technical and business subjects that promote the efficient production of quality food on the farm and in the agricultural-food industry linked to farming. Closely related to biological science, it uses the principles of biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics to solve the problems related to agriculture. Agricultural science include research and development on production techniques; improving agricultural productivity in terms of quantity and quality; transformation of primary products into end consumer products and prevention and correction of adversities. Major areas of specialization within agricultural science are food science, plant science, soil science and animal science.
Job Opportunities
A candidate studying Agriculture may work as Agricultural consultant, Field trials officer, Agricultural scientist, Environmental Education Officer, Teaching.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Government agencies and Research Institutions.
• Environmental charities.
• Schools, colleges, Science centers, Universities and Research institutes.
• Environmental consultancies.
• Agriculture related companies.


Forestry is the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. The challenge of forestry is to create systems that are socially accepted while sustaining the resource and any other resources that might be affected. Forestry is an important and interesting subject of study.
Job Opportunities
A candidate studying Agriculture may work as Foresters, Dendrologists, Ethologists, Entomologists, Silviculturists (forest propagation and culture), Forest Range Officers, Zoo Curators etc.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Governmental, non-governmental organisations interested in preservation of forest resources.
• Corporates having own plantations for timbering.
• Industries that utilise forest resources employ industrial and agricultural consultants.
• Indian Council Of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) and its affiliated Forestry research institutes such as Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, Institute of Social Forestry and Eco-rehabilitation, Allahabad etc.
• Wildlife Research Institutes in Dehra Dun, Coimbatore etc.
• Zoological Parks.
• Wildlife Ranges.
• Education sector as tutors.


Horticulture is more or less a smaller version of agriculture. While agriculture deals with cultivation on a large scale, Horticulture is gardening done on a smaller scale. Horticulture is the Science and art of gardening which is associated with the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, ornamental plants, plantation crops, tuber crops, medicinal and aromatic plants. Horticulture is an applied science, relying upon many other disciplines such as chemistry, physics, engineering, art, meteorology, economics, entomology, botany and many more. Horticulturist uses the basic information and theories of these related fields and tries to find an application for these ideas for the benefit of people and the environment.
Job Opportunities
In Govt. Sector one can work as Horticulture Inspector, Fruit and Vegetable Inspector, Training Assistant in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), District Horticulture Officer/ District Agriculture Officer, Marketing Inspector, Farm Supervisor, Section Officer and Agriculture Inspector, Lecturer and Assistant Professor, Associate Professor in Agriculture Universities and Colleges or Technical Assistant/Technical Officer in Agriculture Universities, Agriculture Development Officer, Scientist. Self employment option is available as Horticulture Consultant or Horticulture Therapist, Floral decorator/ florist shop, Fruit/ Vegetable / Flower grower etc.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Horticulturists work and conduct research in various areas of horticulture, to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses.
• Horticulture has entered the field of medicine also by the name Horticulture Therapy.
• Horticulturists work in a wide range of areas in agribusiness, arboriculture (planting and care of woody plants), botanical gardens, conservation, crop management, floral design, food chemistry, fruit and vegetable production, garden centers, greenhouses, grounds management, landscape construction and management, nurseries, management and sales, marketing/public relations, research and development, teaching/instruction, technical writing and publishing.


The administration of a business includes the performance or management of business operations and decision making as well as the efficient organization of people and other resources to direct activities toward common goals and objectives. The administration can be practiced effectively by studying the courses related to management i.e. BBA and MBA. Management studies provide to cultivate the skills in the candidates to learn the administration.
Business management is one of the most sought after careers, and a wide range of opportunities are available for Business Administration graduates.

Job Opportunities
A candidate studying Management studies may work as Marketing Manager, HR Manager, Financial Manager, Operations Manager, Teaching etc.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Corporate Companies.
• Specialized areas like Information Technology, Hospitality, Tourism and Pharma Management.
• Retail Stores.
• Bank sector.
• Education sector.


Mass communication is "the process by which a person, group of people, or large organization creates a message and transmits it through some type of medium to a large, anonymous, heterogenous audience." Mass communication is regularly associated with media influence or media effects, and media studies. Mass communication is a branch of social science that falls under the larger umbrella of communication studies or communication.
The opportunities for journalists are endless and at the same time the job has become more challenging, as the new world is proving the adage that "the pen (and the camera) is mightier than the sword."

Job Opportunities
A candidate studying Mass Communication can work as editors, reporters, columnists, correspondents, staff or freelance writer, photojournalists, proofreaders, news analysts etc. in print (newspapers and magazines) and electronic (Radio, Television and Web) media.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Newspapers, Periodicals and Magazines.
• Central information service.
• Press information bureau.
• Websites.
• AIR and TV channels like Doordarshan, ZEE TV, Star TV etc.
• At the same time they can do freelancing.


Hotels are amongst the most visible and important aspects of a country's infrastructure. Hotel industry is a closely linked one to the tourism industry. With the growth of hotel industry propelled by foreign and domestic tourism and business travel, the demand for well trained quality personnel too has grown impressively.
The study of Hotel Management involves development of various skills like management, food and beverage service, housekeeping, front office operation, sales and marketing, accounting in the hotel industry.
With increasing globalisation, career opportunities in this field are at its peak. It is a glamorous profession which has a bright future.

Job Opportunities
A Candidate studying Hotel Management may become Managers in Operations, Front office, Housekeeping, Food and Beverages, Accounting, Engineering/ Maintenance, Sales and Security. They may also pursue their career in teaching.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Hotel & Restaurant management.
• Airline Catering and Cabin Services.
• Club management.
• Cruise Ship Hotel Management.
• Hospital administration and catering.
• Hotel and Tourism Associations.
• Forest Lodges.
• Guest Houses.
• Institutional Management (supervising canteens in college, schools, in factories, company guest houses etc.).
• Catering departments of railways, banks, armed forces, shipping companies etc.
• Hotel and catering institutes.
• Self employment.


Food Technology is a branch of science in which food science is applied in the manufacturing and preservation of food products. It is the application of science and technology to the treatment, processing, preservation and distribution of food. Food Technology deals with developing new methods and systems for keeping food products safe, resistant to the threat of natural problems like bacteria.
Food technologists are involved in a wide variety of activities associated with providing nutritious food. Training in Food technology gives adequate knowledge regarding the quality analyzes of raw materials, packaging standards and methodology, health and hygiene parameters, processing techniques, storage and food value, methodologies for extracting useful byproducts from industrial and domestic waste.
The future of the food industries, on a global scale, is in the hands of Food technologists.

Job Opportunities
A Food Technologist Product Development Manager, Sensory scientist or Quality controller in Research laboratories or R&D sectors to develop new products, Test current ones, and control the overall food quality. There are many lucrative positions open to food technologists like Quality Assurance Manager, Laboratory Supervisor, Production Manager and food packaging manager.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Food processing industries.
• Research laboratories.
• Hotels and Hospitality industry.
• Soft drink factories, Rice mills.
• Packaging industries, Manufacturing industries and Distilleries.
• colleges/universities.


Physics & Electronics opens up vistas in engineering, technology, architecture, medicine, veterinary, agriculture and other allied science streams. Electronics has a major role in improving productivity in industries like oil, energy, agriculture and so many other important sectors of economy. Health care industry depend on electronic instruments to perform chemical tests and to check body functions. The safety in transportation, factories and mines and in homes rely heavily on electronics.

Job Opportunities
A candidate studying physics may work as Medical Physicist, Research Scientist, Scientific laboratory Technician, Radiation protection Adviser, the armed forces and defence industry. They may also find employment in academic institutions, and government research organizations as well as industries such as aerospace, engineering, manufacturing, oil and gas, space exploration and telecommunications.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Government organizations such as Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), and National Physical Laboratory.
• Education Sector.
• In Defence Industry.


IT industry is the most career promising industry today. The Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data often in the context of a business or other enterprise. Several industries are associated with information technology, such as computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce and computer services. The courses in this field are B.Sc & M.Sc in Information Technology. The study in this field brings out the skills within the students to work efficiently in the field of Computers.

Job Opportunities
A candidate studying the skills of this subject may work as Software/ Hardware Engineer, programmers, web developers and E- commerce specialists with industries that build or use computer-based systems.

Major Areas for Employment:
• Telecommunications, Automotive, Aerospace, etc.
• National and multi-national computer manufacturing companies.
• Computer hardware system design and development companies.
• Computer networking companies
• Software development companies as well as hardware assembling and maintenance companies.
• Data processing departments of modern industries
• In areas where computers and computer-aided systems are used, such as aeronautics and space science, the petroleum industry, chemical plants and power plants and management consultancy.

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